YouTube can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.
Dating in the Dark
In , YouTube began to promote an alternative stereoscopic video format known as VR, which is limited to a degree field of view, but is promoted as being easier to produce than degree video, and allowing more depth to be maintained by not subjecting the video to equirectangular projection. In late November , YouTube announced that it would introduce a "Story" feature, similar to ones used by Snapchat and Instagram , which would allow its content creators to engage fans without posting a full video. Instead of being placed at the top of the user interface as is commonly done, the "Reels" option would be featured as a separate tab on the creator's channel.
If users engage more with the "Reels" option, it may end up as a more permanent feature and "trigger their appearance on the viewer's YouTube home page as recommendations. On September 13, , YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media -based feature that allows users to post text, images including GIFs , live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel. YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response".
On August 27, , YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature.
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YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface. Users retain copyright of their own work, but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose. Since July , it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material.
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Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H. The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user.
In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal.
The dispute was resolved in September It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service. In May , before Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service.
In a statement to the Financial Times in June , Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms.
However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal. During the World Series in which it was the presenting sponsor , YouTube TV ads were placed behind the home plate. The trademarked red play button logo appeared at the center of the screen, mimicking YouTube's interface. YouTube Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets.
It is distinct from the company's main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth , and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution. YouTube announced the project in September at an event in India. In early , Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube's new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify and Apple Music.
YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from to In , all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley 's music video " Never Gonna Give You Up ", a prank known as " rickrolling ". In , YouTube introduced a global program to develop creators whose videos produce a positive social impact. Both private individuals  and large production companies  have used YouTube to grow audiences.
Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic. Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication". Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world.
Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the " Kony " video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to Kony's demise than all other action combined. Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House 's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in  and in a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson 's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act Obamacare -compliant health insurance.
President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare  but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation". Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.
The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers  and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra  selected their membership based on individual video performances. Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.
YouTube deleted 30 music videos after the complaint. Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in were noted as " not material " in a regulatory filing. The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox , and Disney. There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.
In , YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos. Users of the YPP can have their videos "demonetized" if YouTube feels that the content is not advertiser-friendly. If a video receives this status, ad revenue will be canceled for the video in question, and the video will have a yellow coin symbol in the Partner's YouTube dashboard.
Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue. YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features.
Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos , content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior. At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act.
Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted. YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works". During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site.
The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights". Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling. In August , a US court ruled in Lenz v. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her month-old son dancing to Prince 's song " Let's Go Crazy ", and posted the second video on YouTube. In April , a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. YouTube responded by stating:.
We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.
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In June , YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom , which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found. By , YouTube had "already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology".
An independent test in uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible. Since April , videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute. YouTube has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".
Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster , in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users.
Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly. In October , U. YouTube's policies on " advertiser-friendly content " restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".
DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators". In March , the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content.
The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".
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The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video. On April 6, , YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10, lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program. In January , YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm", as well as pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children.